Brazil’s Action Against Discrimination.
By Alinne Lopes Gomes
|Photo by Oliver Cole on Unsplash|
“Maria Paula Dallari Bucci, PhD in Administrative Law and Public Policies from the Federal University of São Paulo, defines public policy as programs of government action viewing the coordination and disposal of State’s resources to accomplish socially relevant and politically determined objectives.”
Public policies are the reunion of publicly funded programs, actions and normative incentives to produce, protect and insert certain rights and guarantees with broad or restrict reach. It can be considered as a front form of involvement and initiative between the State and civil groups, such as social movements, NGOs and syndical organizations.
The biggest program created in Brazil to englobe LGBT rights and means of safety was introduced in 2004 under President Luiz Inácio “Lula” da Silva. The program “Brasil sem Homofobia” (Brazil Without Homophobia), was born from several debates involving the government and groups of the civil society. Its intention was to protect and promote civil rights to individuals under the LGBTQ+ spectrum.
The projects inside the program englobed actions revolving around three main goals: to support any groups, NGOs or social movements that worked against homophobia and violence against members of the community and in favor of the protection of rights, to capacitate professionals involved in the assertion of LGBT rights in subjects related to Human Rights, including mechanisms and resources and to spread information regarding rights, self-esteem and the reporting of any human rights violations against LGBTQ+ individuals.
Between the specific actions inside the document which gave life to the program, it is important to name some of the most innovative and relevant. One of the biggest instruments suggested by the BSH was the formation of the 2008 National Conference of Public Policies for Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Transvestites and Transsexuals, entitled “Human Rights and Public Policies: The path to guarantee civil rights to Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals, Transvestites and Transsexuals”, counting with officials from all the states members of the Union.
The Conference counted with the presence of 51% of people who identified as gay; 28% as lesbians; 13% as transvestites; 2% as male transvestites and 6% of female transsexuals. Professor Bruna Andrade Irineu wrote in 2014 a paper entitled “Ten Years of the Program Brazil Without Homophobia”, in the paper she considers the disparity of representation of the segments of the LGBT community. As where gay and lesbian individuals represent the majority, the other groups are less present; important to point out is the complete lack of bisexual presence.
One of the strategies accorded during the Conference was the need to amplify the reach of the BSH. To reach this goal, one of the proposals offered during the debates was the creation of a LGBT Plan. The plan was composed of a technical assembly of representatives of all the Ministries: health, social security, justice, public safety and others. The oversight of the Public Policies, which would be offered by the Plan, were handed to the State. A change from the oversight as established by the BSH, where it was relied almost entirely on the hands of the LGBT community.
In 2009, it was created, jointly with the Human Rights Secretary (SDH), the Coordinating of the Promotion of the Rights of Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Transvestites and Transsexuals. The organ oversaw and assisted the SDH on the elaboration of plans of action, programs and activities to promote LGBT rights, alongside the National Council of Discrimination Combat and Promotion of LGBT Rights (CNDC – LGBT). It is through these organs inside the Federal government that most of the policies are shaped and introduced to the public.
Through insistence of the LGBT National Council, it was introduced to public consultation in 2013 the creation of the National System of Confrontation of LGBT Violence. The System had the goal of introducing LGBT specific councils in all levels of government and assist in the promotion of LGBT rights and guarantees. The CNDC – LGBT was considered a great win for the social movements and the organized groups fighting for LGBT rights, being the result of several actions of
This article is extracted from the Research paper titled 'LGBT Policies and Overall Safety in Brazil' in Chapter 4 of the Safety Report by SAFIGI Outreach Foundation 'Safety First for Girls'.
The Safety Report by SAFIGI is a two-fold Open research on 'Core Issues Affecting Safety of Girls in the Developing World.' The first part of the Safety Report is a Research Paper. The second part is a detailed Data Analysis.
The Safety Report Research paper is titled: 'Core Issues Affecting Safety of Girls in the Developing World.' The paper starts with an abstract before focusing on subjects in the key regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. A total of 7 Research papers make up the safety Report (sans the introduction and conclusion), including:
- The psychological effect of mass sexual harassment on girls in Egypt (P.24) by Heba Elasiouty.
- Safety concerns in relation to social media: Growing up female in an increasingly digital world (P.45) by Karin Temperley.
- Psychosocial challenges faced by parents raising children with physical disabilities in Oshana region (P.68) by Misumbi Shikaputo.
- Gender-based violence and subsequent safety challenges experienced by Rohingya women (P.119) by Shucheesmita Simonti.
- LGBT policies and overall safety in Brazil (P.141) by Alinne Lopes Gomes.
- Silent voices‘: Violence against the female body as consequence of machismo culture (P.177) by Steffica Warwick.
- America‘s Public Policy on Sexuality: The Repression of Girls in Vulnerable Populations (P.208) by Dr. Christina Sisti.
The Safety Report Data Analysis is titled: 'Core Issues Affecting Safety of Girls. Results and Outcomes based on Zambia, Egypt, USA, Tanzania, South Sudan, and Namibia.'
SAFIGI Outreach Foundation Ltd, a volunteer-based and youth led NGO registered in Zambia, implemented the Safety Report in order to understand the multifaceted concept of safety and how it applies to the female gender in diverse settings. And therefore, further prove safety is intrinsic, and that vices in society stem from an intimate level of the human being before its manifestation. This way, when we create safety solutions, whether it be in a developing nation, conflict zone, refugee camp, or patriarchal society, the problem is resolved from a deeply rooted cause. Such that, we treat the disease itself and not mere symptoms.
This study is as a result of collaborative effort pursued in the spirit of volunteerism via UN Online Volunteers.